PMMA-20501 Adoption of Multiple Climate Smart Agriculture Practices: Study on Gender Welfare Gap and Policy Options for Women Empowerment in Tanzania


Adverse climate change is known to disproportionately affects the productivity of women engaged in agriculture in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries who, unlike men, have limited command over financial and non-financial resources; and, they also lack alternative sources of income to largely unpredictable income from the rainfed agriculture. Traditionally, women in SSA economies are burdened by heavy workload occasioned, among others, by numerous household cores – gathering wood for fuel, cooking, attendance to mostly a large number of children, lack of support on the same from their spouses. Accordingly, therefore, climate smart agriculture practices (CSAP) offers an avenue for mitigating the adverse effect of climate change on women that would: a) lead to sustainable productivity and predictable income from agriculture; b) empower women and, in relation, narrow the gender gap; c) ensure food and nutrition security; and, not least avert decumulation of assets, pauperization and indebtedness caused by the adverse effect of climate change. Despite the efforts to integrate CSAP into farming systems in Tanzania in the last decade, the uptake has been (s)low. Nonetheless, available anecdotal evidence suggests the CSAP strategies are likely to yield the intended outcomes if their implementation is “gender-sensitive”, that is, integrate gender aspects. Importance of implementing “gender-sensitive” CSAP to achieve a positive impact on agricultural development and beyond is very explicit: women account for about 90.2 percent of the total labour force in agriculture. In this study, we estimate the gender gap in the adoption of CSAP and explore the associated impact of adopting multiple CSAP on agriculture productivity gap and household welfare by gender and type of household (male or female headed). We also answer the question of which women empowerment domain best predict adoption of CSAP and whether empowering women in agriculture mediates the link between adoption of CSAP and welfare. We use the World Banks’s panel data for Tanzania from Integrated Living Standards Measurement Surveys for 2008, 2010, 2012, and 2014 survey supplemented by Feed the Future data of 2016. The data analysis will be carried out by a battery of Switching Regression Models and Instrumental Variables (IV) method, mainly used to control for endogeneity in the estimations. We also use the extended Oaxaca-Blinder by Fairlie (2005) to decompose the gender gap in adoption of CSAP.


Project leader: Michael Ndanshau

Project researchers: Mkupete Jaah | Brenda Nyambo | SALOME MASEBO | Daktari Hango | Vumilia Zikankuba

Scientific mentors: Jorge Davalos

Policy outreach mentors: Stephen Wainaina

Journal publication

No journal publications.

Working Papers

No working papers.

Policy Briefs

No policy briefs.

Final report

Title Modified Size Comments Recommendations
Implications of Climate Smart Agriculture Adoption on Women Productivity and Welfare in Tanzania 2022-12-02 1.33MB 0 0


Title Modified Size Comments Recommendations
Adoption of Multiple Climate Smart Agriculture Practices: Study on Gender Welfare Gap and Policy Options for Women Empowerment in Tanzania 2022-12-02 1.15MB 3 0

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