PIERI-12883 Barriers limiting access to financial services for micro and small entrepreneurs in Bolivia: A randomized lab-field experiment on institutional ethnic discriminatory practices


A field experiment was performed in a controlled laboratory setting to evaluate whether credit officers reject micro-loan applications based on the ethnicity/gender of potential borrowers. Point estimates of a mixed-effects logistic regression suggest that, compared to non-indigenous men, non-indigenous women have two times more chance of loan approval, and indigenous women have 1.5 more chance of loan approval. The interval results regarding ethnic discrimination are inconclusive, however some evidence of taste-based discrimination in credit lending that was favorable for non-indigenous women was found.


Project leader: Gabriela Aguilera Lizarazu

Project researchers: Rolando Gonzales | Patricia Aranda | Boris A. Luna Acevedo | Andrea Rojas Hosse

Journal publication

Authors Co-Authors Title of paper Title of Economic Review Bibliographic references
Rolando Gonzales Martínez Gabriela Aguilera‐Lizarazu, Andrea Rojas‐Hosse, Patricia Aranda Blanco The interaction effect of gender and ethnicity in loan approval: A Bayesian estimation with data from a laboratory field experiment Review of Development Economics

Special issue (PEP)
Published online
(July 2019 - "early view")

Working Papers

Title Modified Size Comments Recommendations
Preference for women but less preference for indigenous women: A lab-field experiment of loan discrimination in a developing economy 2016-12-06 3141.24KB 0 1

Policy Briefs

Title Modified Size Comments Recommendations
Gender and ethnicity-related loan discrimination: A lab-in-the-field experiment in Bolivia 2016-12-15 432.78KB 0 0

Final report

Title Modified Size Comments Recommendations
2016-09-02 766.73KB 0 0


Title Modified Size Comments Recommendations
2015-10-30 973.56KB 0 0

Copyright © 2008-2023 PEP. All rights reserved.
If you have any question or if you need assistance, please contact: info@pep-net.org.